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  • Amazing Faktom 11:32 pm on 12 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: baby, Baby care, hair, wet baby hair   

    Baby care: don’t leave your baby’s hair wet! 

    Don’t leave your baby’s hair wet. Rather you must dry it with a soft towel then use a wide comb to brush it gracefully and separate the strands that bend and interlock with each other after the bath. What you achieve with this brief measure is to avoid the possibility of serious hair loss, by protecting the tufts from damage and breakage.

    Translated from http://www.lebanon24.com/articles/1501056405150869800

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  • Amazing Faktom 3:40 pm on 12 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Interview with Mongol Khan, Interviews with Mongol Khans, Medieval explorer, Medieval travel writer, Medieval travelers, Mission to the Mongols, , Mongol-Catholic relations, Sartaq Khan, William of Rubruck   

    William of Rubruck 

    William of Rubruck (Born around 1200 – Died after 1256) was a Fransciscan missionary and travel writer who traveled to Karakorum and met the Mongol Emperor Mongke Khan. He also met Batu Khan of the Golden Horde, and his Christian son Sartaq. He wrote a highly detailed account of his journeys, titled Itinerarium, which includes invaluable historical, geographical, ethnological, and religious information. It also features dialogues with the Khans Mongke and Batu. One of hte most notable events in his journey was a religious debate held by Mongke Khan.

    Biography

    William of Rubruck was closely connected to the French king Lous IX. He accompanied Louis on his crusade, and went to Acre and Tripoli. Rubruck heard about the Mongols from Andrew of Longjumeau, and thereafter sought permission to go preach in the Mongol Empire.

    In 1253, Louis sent him off, with the goal of spiritually comforting some German slaves who were taken captive during the Mongol invasion of Hungary and brought to central Asia. His other purposes included preaching Catholicism and meeting the Christian prince Sartaq. Rubruck was accompanied on his travels by the Franciscan monk Bartholomew, a clerk, and an interpreter.

    Rubruck and his companions went to Constantinople, then Soldaia in the Crimea, then to the Ukrainian steppe where they met the Christian prince Sartaq. Sartaq was the son and successor of Batu Khan, the leader of the Golden Horde. Rubruck was not impressed by Sartaq’s Christianity.

    The Mongols misunderstood the purpose and nature of Rubruck’s mission, and for this reason Sartaq sent him to Batu Khan. Batu then sent them (minus the clerk) to Mongke Khan in Mongolia.

    Mongke met with Rubruck and allowed him to preach to him. Mongke arranged a religious debate, in which the monotheists won against the Buddhists. Rubruck claims to have won the debate himself. In Mongke’s final audience with Rubruck, he said “…as God gives us the different fingers of the hand, so he gives to men diverse ways. God gives you the Scriptures, and you Christians keep them not.”; and “He gave us diviners, we do what they tell us, and we live in peace.” [1]

    Mongke understood that Rubruck was not an ambassador. He sent him back to Louis IX with a letter demanding submission. Rubruck never succeeded in reaching the German slaves he had set out to find and comfort. Mongke Khan’s letter insisted that he and Genghis Khan were the legitimate representatives of God: “the word of the eternal God to Chingis Chan has not reached unto you, either through Chingis Chan or others who have come after him.”

    “…we send you in writing the commandments of the eternal God by these your priests: the commandments of the eternal God are what we impart to you. And when you shall have heard and believed, if you will obey us, send your ambassadors to us; and so we shall have proof whether you want peace or war with us.” [1]

    Rubruck returned through the Caucasus and reached Palestine in 1255. He then traveled to France, where Louis IX now was. The remainder of his biography is unknown. He provided few personal details in his travel account, but did mention on one occasion that he was overweight.

    Itinerarium

    Rubruck’s Itinerarium, describing his journey, is full of invaluable information not to be found anywhere else, ranging from political history to ethnology, geography, and religion. He was one of the first Europeans in recorded history to describe the Chinese, Buddhism, and the indigenous religion of the Mongols. He also provides details on the Nestorian Christians he encountered. Rubruck spent several months in Karakorum and thus provides details on the city and how life operated at the court of the Khan Mongke.

    Prominent English translations of the Itinerarium have been made by W. W. Rockhill and Peter Jackson.

    References

    [1] (Rockhill’s translation of Rubruck’s Itinerarium) https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/rubruck.html

    http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/william-of-rubruck

    https://history1800ciza.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/who-is-william-of-rubruck/

    https://everipedia.org/wiki/William_of_Rubruck/

     

    Article written by me for Lunyr

     
  • Amazing Faktom 11:50 am on 11 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply  

    Mansa Musa 

    Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Sultan of the Malian Empire. He has been estimated to have been the wealthiest man in all history. [1] He belonged to the Keita Dynasty, and was a grandson or grandnephew of the founder of the Malian Empire, Sundiata Keita. The word ‘mansa’ means ‘king’ or ‘emperor’.

    Biography

    Mansa Musa was born in the 1280s. He lived in the prosperous Malian Empire, which encompassed what is now Ghana, Mauritania, and Mali. This empire prospered in particular because of natural mineral resources, especially gold and salt.

    Abu Bakr II is said to have gone on an expedition to explore the Atlantic and never returned. Musa was appointed as deputy to oversee the empire while Abu Bakr was absent. In accordance with the rules of succession, Musa took over and ascended the throne when Abu Bakr II failed to return. He was coronated in 1312.

    Many cities and regions were conquered by the Malian Empire during Musa’s reign, including Timbuktu and Gao. He expanded the empire’s borders into areas that are now Nigeria, Ethiopia, Chad, and Gambia. He built many mosques and madrasas in these regions, thus spreading Islam. Timbuktu became a major economic, cultural, religious, and intellectual center during Musa’s reign. The Sankore Madrasa in Timbuktu attracted students from all over Africa and the Middle East.

    Mansa Musa took measures to facilitate increased trade across the Sahara. He became extremely wealthy, and has been suggested as the wealthiest man in history. One approximation of his wealth in 21st -century terms is $400 billion US dollars.

    Mansa Musa is particularly known for his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324-1325, in which he spent extravagantly. He is said to have built a mosque in every city he visited on a Friday. According to one account, he traveled with a large entourage of 60,000 men and 80 camels, each carrying 300 pounds of gold. Musa gave out gold and riches as charity everywhere he passed through. He also gave lavish gifts to the rulers of the countries he passed through. This caused massive inflation in some places, such as Egypt.

    Musa’s journey began from his capital Niani, then he went to Walata (modern Mauritania) and up to Tuat (modern Algeria), and from there across North Africa and down to Mecca. In Cairo, he met with the Mamluk Sultan Al-Malik al-Nasir. It is reported that Musa was so preoccupied with his religious acitivites that it was difficult for him to be persuaded to visit the sultan.[2] During Musa’s pilgrimage, his general Sagmandia conquered the Songhai Kingdom’s capital of Gao. When Musa returned from the pilgrimage, he went first to Gao and received the submission of the Songhai king in person.

    Musa’s pilgrimage made him well-known throughout Europe and the Middle East. He benefited from his pilgrimage to establish economic and religious connections with North Africa and the Middle East. The pilgrimage also reinvigorated his faith, leading to an intensification of his support for Islam throughout the empire. When he returned from the pilgrimage, he brought back Arabc scholars, books, government officers, architects, among other things.

    Mansa Musa died between 1332 and 1337. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Mansa Maghan.

    References

    [1] https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/mansa-musa-33307.php

    [2] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Musa-I-of-Mali

    http://www.blackpast.org/gah/musa-mansa-1280-1337

    http://www.islamlaws.com/mansa-musa-biography-birth-date-bio-history-king-of-mali/
    Article was written by me for Lunyr

     
  • Amazing Faktom 3:56 pm on 10 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Guyuk Khan, , Mongol Khaghan, , Son of Ogedei   

    Guyuk Khan 

    Guyuk Khan (c. 1206 – 1248) was a Mongol Emperor who ruled from 1246 until his sudden death in 1248. He was third emperor of the Mongol Empire and the oldest son of Ogedei, the previous Emperor, who was Genghis Khan’s third son. Guyuk participated in the Mongol invasions of Europe from 1237-1241, which was led nominally led by Guyuk’s cousin Batu. Guyuk had a dispute with Batu during the invasion of Russia, and when Guyuk came to the throne, there was a serious risk of warfare between them. Guyuk’s sudden death in 1248 prevented this.

    Biography

    Guyuk was the eldest son of Ogedei. After Ogedei became Emperor in 122, Guyuk was given a territory in the Emil-Qobuq region. Guyuk participated in Ogedei’s campaign against Manchurian Jin Dynasty in northern China. Later, he participated in the invasion of Europe that began in 1237. This invasion was nominally led by Batu Khan, and the general Subotai is usually considered the true leader and mastermind of the invasion. Guyuk quarreled with Batu during the invasion of Russia, and the enmity between them did not subside.

    The emperor Ogedei Khan died in 1241, which put an end to the successful invasion of Europe. The Mongols had vassalized countless Russian cities, sparing the ones in the far north such as Novgorod, occupied Hungary, and defeated armies and cities in Poland. They withdrew from Hungary upon Ogedei’s death, and Guyuk’s mother Toregene became regent.

    Many Mongol nobles returned to Karakorum to participate in the kurultai, whereby the new emperor would be chosen, but Batu did not attend. Guyuk was proposed as a good candidate for the throne, but Batu opposed this. With the help of his mother and regent Toregene, Guyuk was enthroned in August, 1246. Toregene died the same year, and Guyuk purged her advisors and appointed officials. It was reported by the medieval historian Rashid ad-Din that Guyuk accepted the throne only on the condition that the succession would remain in his branch of the family.

    Guyuk sent reinforcements to China, but generally tended to focus his ambitions westward. He took measures to further consolidate control over client states including Rum and Georgia. He sent the general Eljigidei to take command over the Transcaucasus, an area controlled by Batu. He sent a letter to the Pope demanding that he and the kings of Europe come to the Mongols in person and surrender.

    In 1247, Guyuk assembled an army and headed west. At the same time, Batu headed east. Guyuk said he wanted to invade Europe, but many historians believe he was going to have a conflict with Batu.

    Guyuk suddenly died in 1248. The Franciscan friar William of Rubruck reports two accounts of his death: the first is that he had been poisoned, and the second that he died in a drunken brawl with one of Batu’s brothers. Batu arranged for Mongke to come to the throne.

    The historian Juvayni mentions that Guyuk was a very generous ruler.

    Religion

    Guyuk is reported by some historians to have favored Nestorian Christianity. Medieval historian Juvayni and Rashid ad-Din report that Guyuk was raised by the Christian Qadaq, a minister of Ogedei’s. However, Guyuk’s letter to the Pope from 1246 seems to indicate a disdain for Christianity and a belief in a sort of Mongol nationalism: “Chinggis Khan and Ogatai Khagan revealed the commands of Heaven. But those whom you name would not believe the commands of Heaven. Those of whom you speak showed themselves highly presumptuous and slew our envoys. Therefore, in accordance with the commands of the Eternal Heaven, the inhabitants of the aforesaid countries have been slain and annihilated. If not by the command of Heaven, how can anyone slay or conquer out of his own strength? And when you say: ‘I am a Christian. I pray to God. I arraign and despise others’, how do you know who is pleasing to God and to whom He allots His grace?”

    It is reported by Juzjani that Guyuk was influenced by Buddhists.

    References

    http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/gyk-khan

    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Guyuk

    http://adamcollier.com/mongollettertopope/

     

    This article was written by me for Lunyr

     
  • Amazing Faktom 11:35 am on 9 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Berke Khan, Conversion of Golden Horde to Islam, Converts to Islam, Converts to Sufism, Golden Horde ruler, , Jochid prince,   

    Berke Khan 

    Berke Khan (Birth date unknown — Died around 1267) was a Mongol Khan who ruled the Golden Horde from 1257 until his death around 1267. He was the first Mongol ruler to convert to Islam, and he set the Golden Horde on the path to eventually becoming an officially Islamic state. He was also the first Mongol ruler to form an alliance with a non-Mongol power, the Mamluk sultanate in Egypt. He allied with the Mamluks during the Mongol civil war of 1259-1264 and fought against Hulagu Khan, who had been invading Egypt. Berke thus permanently halted Mongol expansion in the Muslim world.

    Biography

    Berke was grandson of Genghis Khan through his eldest son Jochi. Jochi’s true paternity was always subject to some doubt due to Genghis Khan’s wife Borte being kidnapped before she gave birth to him, yet his official status as Genghis Khan’s son was never threatened. Jochi had been given the northwest portion of Genghis Khan’s empire, encompassing the Ukraine. Jochi was succeeded by his sons Batu and Orda, who were Berke’s brothers. Batu led the Mongol invasions of Russia and Europe from 1237-1241, thus greatly expanding the territory and influence of the Golden Horde. Batu died in 1255.

    Batu Khan was succeeded by his Christian son Sartaq. Sartaq soon died, and was succeeded by Ulaghchi, who may have been his son. Ulaghchi died quickly as well, which has led historians to suspect that Sartaq and Ulaghchi were both assassinated by Berke. Berke succeeded Ulaghchi in 1257.

    In 1256, the Emperor Mongke’s brother Hulagu had been sent to complete the conquest of Persia, Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. He was highly destructive. In 1258, Hulagu’s forces captured Baghdad , the seat of the Abbasid Caliphate, and destroyed the library and executed the caliph. Hulagu’s invasion and destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate are credited with ending the Islamic Golden Age. Hulagu proceeded to Syria and was on the verge of invading Egypt.

    Berke had converted to Islam in 1252. This was supposedly under the influence of Saifuddin Boharzi, a Sufi shaykh and disciple of Najmuddin Kubra.

    Berke was outraged by Hulagu’s destruction of the Muslim world and particularly the caliphate. He wrote to Mongke Khan complaining of Hulagu’s behavior. However, Mongke died in 1259 before he could address the issue. This sparked a civil war between Mongke’s brothers Ariq Boke and Khubilai. Berke sided with Ariq Boke, while Hulagu sided with Khubilai. Hulagu retreated from Syria and the forces he left there were defeated by the Mamluks in the Battle of Ain Jalut.

    In 1260, Berke invaded Hulagu’s holdings in the Caucasus. The war was never decisively won by either party. Berke inflicted a great defeat on Hulagu in the Battle of the Terek River in 1962

    In 1264, Khubilai Khan defeated Ariq Boke. Berke nominally acknowledged his sovereignty, while remaining de facto independent. Khubilai sent a large army of reinforcements to Hulagu in 1264. Then Hulagu died in 1265. At some point between 1265 and 1267, Berke died too.

    Berke’s legacy was that he halted Mongol expansion in the Muslim world and set the Golden Horde on the path to officially embracing Islam. He played a key role in the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire by continuing the independent style of ruling begun by Batu Khan, and by allying with a non-Mongol power against other Mongols.

    He was succeeded by Mongke Temur.

    References

    http://www.nouahsark.com/en/infocenter/culture/history/monarchs/berke.php

    http://mvslim.com/know-berke-khan-first-mongol-ruler-embraced-islam/

    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Berke

    http://eurasia.travel/uzbekistan/cities/bukhara/mausoleum_of_saifetdin_boharziy/

    https://www.advantour.com/uzbekistan/sufism/bokharzi.htm

     

    This article was written for me by Lunyr

     

     
  • Amazing Faktom 4:01 pm on 8 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: eurasian president, eurasian union, eurasianism, great leader putin, new russian empire, new soviet union, , putin for life, putin survey, putin third term, russian expansion, survey, third presidential term, third term survey, Vladimir Putin   

    Who wants a third presidential term for Vladimir Putin? 

    51% of respondents said they would like to see Vladimir Putin as president after 2024, while only 27% said they would not, according to a survey by the Levada Center. It is clear that Vladimir Putin will not go for a third term; he did not do it even in 2008, temporarily losing the presidency to Dmitry Medvedev.

    We don’t know exactly what Mr. Putin’s plans are, but nothing prevents us from thinking about this. And here, the first thing that comes to mind is Eurasian integration. Back in 1994, Boris Yeltsin said that cooperation in the CIS should be built following the example of the European Union. Then in 1994, the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev read his famous lecture on Eurasianism in Moscow at Moscow State University.

    In 1999, Europe took the most important step in the formation of a single business space – the euro was launched, first as a non-cash monetary unit, and as cash since 2002. The world is changing rapidly; the time of sanctions and trade wars is coming. G7 has actually been transformed into G6 + Trump. The latter in fact sees in Europe not partners, but vassals. It is likely that Europe will eventually arrive at not only a unified economy and finances, but also to a common foreign policy and unified armed forces. NATO was created as a counterweight to the USSR, but the Soviet Union has long been gone, as well as the idea of a social justice force claiming world leadership. The latter, for obvious reasons, was feared by the entire capitalist world.

    The Eurasian Union includes five countries: Belarus, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia. Some people think that Mongolia and Iran can join them in the future. The economic core is the first three countries. Nothing hinders the introduction of a single currency at any time, once we give it the working name of the Altyn, for Belarus, Russia and Kazakhstan. Eurasian integration was to be the main focus of Vladimir Putin’s work during the past presidential term. However, because of the events in the East of Ukraine, it was postponed. This, from our point of view, is a very controversial economic and geopolitical choice.

    As in the case of the European Union, the main goal of Eurasian integration in the post-Soviet space for Moscow should be a single currency, a unified armed forces and a unified foreign policy. The problems are complex, but in fact solvable. The main issue is the likely transition of power both in Astana and in Minsk.

    If successful, Vladimir Putin could become the President or Prime Minister of the Eurasian Union. This idea is not new, by the way, as Boris Yeltsin planned to remain for a third term, becoming the president of the united Russia and Belarus. However, the default of August 1998 and subsequent devaluation and financial crisis confused him and he stepped down.

    By Alexander Razuvaev

    Translated from gumilev-center.ru: http://www.gumilev-center.ru/chem-zajjmetsya-putin-posle-2024-goda/

     
  • Amazing Faktom 9:22 pm on 6 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Author of Ride of the Valkyries, , Inventor of Leitmotif, Richard Wagner   

    Richard Wagner 

     
  • Amazing Faktom 12:03 am on 6 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , chinese, chinese surveillance, communists, cyberwarfare, data protection, data security, Edmodo, EdSurge, , Net Dragon, Pep So, , personal information, William Carter   

    Chinese investments in education may have an effect on American data security 

    EdSurge released material on what will happen to the confidentiality of student data when Chinese companies purchase American educational startups.

    The face recognition technologies used in China raise many concerns among experts in the field of data protection. Now Chinese companies are investing more and more in American educational technology. For example, the Chinese game developer Net Dragon bought the school management system Edmodo for $137.5 million. Edmodo is used in many American schools and has about 90 million users.

    “Experts worry about what will happen to the personal data of the students. Data is a strategic resource,” says William Carter, Deputy Director of the Center for Strategic and International Studies. “If China gets access to a lot of US data, it will have a strategic impact on the United States.”

    Representatives of Net Dragon argue in reponse that their goal is to increase profits, and not spying. According to Pep So, Corporate Development Director at Net Dragon, the company will act in accordance with the US Federal Act on the Protection of the Personal Information of Children on the Internet. “Of course, we want to protect the data of our users, but we also want to get into the target audience, and it’s quite difficult to achieve a balance here. Right now we do not have a clear answer as to what can or shouldn’t be done. To be honest, I think this is something Facebook does not know,” commented So.

    Translated from Edutainme: http://www.edutainme.ru/post/data-china-usa/

     
  • Amazing Faktom 11:59 am on 5 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Mongol civil war, Mongol conquest of Iran, Mongol conquest of Iraq, Mongol conquest of Syria, , Mongol Khagan, , Mongol pluralism, Religious debate, Third emperor of Mongol Empire   

    Mongke Khan 

    Mongke Khan (Born January 11, 1209 – Died August 11, 1259) was the fourth ruler of the Mongol Empire, and a grandson of Genghis Khan through his youngest son Tolui. He ruled from 1251 until his death in 1259. His reign was characterized by expansion to the South into China and the Muslim world.

    Biography

    Mongke was the son of Genghis Khan’s youngest son, Tolui, and Sorghaghtani. He knew Genghis Khan in his youth, and hunted alongside him. During the reign of Ogedei, Mongke participated in the Mongol invasion of Europe, which was led by Batu Khan and the general Subotai. Ogedei’s future successor Guyuk also participated in this invasion. Ogedei died in 1241 and was succeeded by Guyuk in 1246, against Batu’s wishes. Guyuk suddenly died in 1248, and was succeeded by Mongke in 1251.

    Mongke’s accession to the throne in 1251 was an anomaly, because the throne had previously been given to the Ogodeid line. Guyuk Khan had accepted the throne on the condition that the throne remain within his line. However, Mongke ended up as Khan due to the influence of Mongke’s mother, Sorghaghtani, and Batu Khan, the ruler of the Golden Horde. He shared the empire with Batu Khan, who ruled the Golden Horde largely independently, while still acknowledging the sovereignty of Mongke.

    In 1256, Mongke sent his brother Hulagu with a large army to conquer the Middle East. Hulagu destroyed the Ismaili sect in Persia, then proceeded to sack Baghdad and execute the Caliph in 1258, thus destroying the Abbasid Caliphate. This action is credited with ending the Islamic Golden Age. Berke Khan, the first Muslim Mongol ruler, had come to power in the Golden Horde in 1257. He was outraged and sent a letter to Mongke complaining of Hulagu’s actions. Hulagu continued to Syira, and he was on the verge of invading Egypt when his conquests were stalled by the sudden death of Mongke.

    While Hulagu was invading the Muslim world in the West, Mongke and Khubilai waged war in the East against the Song Dynasty in southern China, as well as some southeast Asian kingdoms. They conquered the Thai kingdom of Nan-Chao and a large part of what is now Vietnam. In 1257, Mongke placed his brother Khubilai in charge of northern China, while he himself personally led the invasion of the Song Dynasty. He placed his younger brother Ariq Boke in charge of Mongolia. In 1259, Mongke died during the siege of Diaoyu Fortress in what is now Chongqing. He did not leave a clear designated successor. Subsequently, the empire was engulfed in civil war between Ariq Boke and Khubilai. Khubilai won, but the empire never again reached the level of unity it had under Genghis, Ogedei, and Mongke.

    Mongke’s body was buried near the graves of Genghis Khan and Tolui in Burkhan Khaldun.

    Religion

    An idea of Mongke’s personality reaches us through the account of William of Rubruck, a Fransiscan friar who went to the Mongol capital Karakorum and met Mongke. Rubruck spoke with Mongke Khan and also represented the Catholic faith in a formal religious debate held by Mongke. Rubruck claims that he won the debate. It is clear that Mongke sided with the monotheists, that is to say the Muslims and Christians. Mongke is reported as saying to Rubruck, “We Mongols believe in one God, by whom we live and die. Just as God gave different fingers to the hand so has He given different ways to men. To you God has given the Scriptures and you Christians do not observe them.”

    Government

    Mongke Khan introduced many administrative and financial reforms across the empire. He conducted a census across the vast empire, ranging from North China in the East to Afghanistan, Georgia, and Russia in the West.

    References

    https://everipedia.org/wiki/M%25C3%25B6ngke_Khan/

    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Mongke

    Article written by me or Lunyr

     

     
  • Amazing Faktom 4:00 pm on 4 Jul 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Electric guitar, Greatest electric guitarist of all time, Jimi Hendrix, Musicians who died young   

    Jimi Hendrix 

    James Marshall “Jimi” Hendrix (Born November 27, 1942 in Seattle, USA – Died September 18, 1970 in London, UK) was an American electric guitarist who is known for his innovation and originality and widely considered the most talented electric guitarist of all time. He had a brief but very successful and productive career that was cut short by his sudden death at age 27.

    Biography

    Jimi Hendrix was born as Johnny Allen Hendrix, then later his name was changed to James Marshall Hendrix. His father was named James “Al” Hendrix, and his mother was named Lucille Jeter. They had a troubled relationship and ultimately divorced in 1951, after having two more children. Jimi’s father Al had retained custody of the children.

    Jimi had a love of music from a young age. He was musically illiterate throughout his life, never receiving a musical education. His father noticed his interest in music and gave him a ukulele to practice. By the time Jimi was sixteen, his father had bought him a cheap acoustic guitar.

    Jimi joined the band The Velvetones in the summer of 1958 and stayed with them for three months. In 1959, he joined the band The Rocking Kings. The same year, his father bought him his first electric guitar.

    In 1961, Jimi joined the army to avoid jail time for charges for car theft. He was part of the 101st Airborne Division based in Fort Campbell, Kentucky. While in the army, he formed a band with Billy Cox called The King Casuals. Jimi was discharged in 1965, in his own words due to an injury during a parachute jump. US Army records claim that he was discharged for “unsuitability” due to “demonstrating homosexual tendencies.” [1]

    After the war, Jimi worked as a session guitarist. He played with many prominent artists such as Sam Cooke, the Isley Brothers, Little Richard, B. B. King, and Ike and Tina Turner. Then he created his own band called Jimmy James and the Blue Flames. He met the bassist from the Animals, Chas Chandler, who arranged for Jimi to sign an agreement that would have him move to London and start a new band. This band was called The Jimi Hendrix Experience. It included Mitch Mitchell as drummer and Noel Redding as bassist.

    The Jimi Hendrix Experience became very popular in London. Their first single, “Hey Joe” reached the 6th spot on the UK charts in 1967. In June, 1967, he performed at the Monterey International Pop Festival in the US. This was a great success and he immediately became extremely popular in the US.

    The Jimi Hendrix Experienced disbanded in 1969. Jimi formed a new band, featuring Billy Cox (who he had played with in the army) as bassist, and Buddy Miles as drummer. This band was called the Band of Gypsys. In 1970, Mitch Mitchell joined Jimi Hendrix again as his drummer, while Billy Cox remained the bassist. They once again used the name The Jimi Hendrix Experience. The same year, Jimi founded a recording studio, Electric Lady Studios, in New York City.

    Jimi Hendrix died from drug-related complications on September 18, 1970. He had been a heavy user of various drugs. He lived a promiscuous lifestyle and never married, but he did have two illegitimate children. Jimi’s estate was inherited by his father.

    Musical Style and Legacy

    Jimi Hendrix is widely regarded as the most talented electric guitarist of all time. He used innovative amplification techniques to produce unique sounds that are difficult to imitate. He particularly used a fuzz face and a wah-pedal to produce special sounds. He continually experimented with new technologies and techniques, often in collaboration with Roger Mayer.

    Jimi was musically illiterate and received no musical education, but taught himself through practice how to improvise sophisticated and complex music. He took stylistic influences from R&B, Blues, Soul, Jazz, Rock and Roll, and Rock music.

    Jimi Hendrix remains extremely popular and influential in the 21st century. He has influenced countless artists in many genres, ranging from heavy metal to funk and hip hop.

    References

    [1] http://myfivebest.com/musicians-who-dodged-the-draft/

    https://www.jimihendrix.com/biography/

    https://www.biography.com/people/jimi-hendrix-9334756

    http://www.notablebiographies.com/He-Ho/Hendrix-Jimi.html

    https://www.allmusic.com/artist/jimi-hendrix-mn0000354105/biography

    https://everipedia.org/wiki/Jimi_Hendrix/

     

    Article written by me for Lunyr

     
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